In Japan, government support, LED lighting industry grow rapidly. In 2008 the Japanese lighting market, LED lighting accounted for 0.8% of the proportion is expected to reach 8% in 2015, 2020, will increase to 25%. Nichia, ToyodaGosei and other influential world-leading enterprises are emerging LED. Japanese government in promoting the development of LED industry played a very important role. As early as 12 years ago, Japan has started to promote the development of semiconductor lighting technology and industrialization of the “21st Century Light Plan”, is the world’s first LED industry policy launched one of the countries. This article focuses on the LED to explore Japan’s most important industrial policy “in the 21st century light plan”, both before and after analysis of the plan implementation phase of the development focus to summarize the development of LED industry in Guangdong inspiration.
A first stage in order to promote R & D-based (1998-2002)
Organization to promote the implementation of the scheme commissioned by the authority. Japan’s “21st Century Light Project” (high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion compound semiconductor development) was in March 1998 by the METI (formerly MITI, METI) for the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO, TheNewEnergyAndIndustrialTechnologyDevELopmentOrganization) to provide funded by NEDO, and the specific metals research and development centers in Japan (JRCM, TheJapanResearchAndDevelopmentCenterForMetals) jointly implemented. Developed by the Japan Electric Lamp Manufacturers’ Association and four universities, 13 companies cooperation.
From the point of view at that time, Japan has actively implementing “21st Century Light Plan” mainly because of three considerations: First, to energy-saving, LED products, excellent energy saving effect can save a lot of energy for Japan, which is the most important reason. Second order reduction, once the popularity of LED lighting, will reduce 3.4 million tons per year of carbon dioxide, no doubt for the Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions to add a booster. Third, the industry leader for the Japanese government to cultivate local LED industry’s international competitiveness and maintain with Nichia, Toyoda Gosei in Japan, led by companies such as LED technology leader in the world.
A focus on promoting R & D program. “The 21st century light plan” a plan emphasizes basic research in LED technology. In 1998-2002, the Japanese government invested 5 billion yen and the development of white LED semiconductor lighting, new semiconductor materials, substrate, phosphor, and lighting, etc. (see Table 1), the 2005 production that can replace incandescent and fluorescent The first generation of LED light source for general lighting. Japan has achieved a “21st century light plan” the first phase of the target.
Completion of the first phase of the target, largely cast a number of leading Japanese LED business success, they GaN blue and green LED breakthroughs in a number of industrial areas such as key and common technologies and the establishment of a worldwide patent network formed in this century, Japan’s leading edge LED industry. For example, the master of polysilicon, silicon and silicon wafer manufacturing materials and other production and manufacturing technologies have world-renowned Japanese company Shin-Etsu, Mitsubishi two (with two other virtues of enterprise MEMC, Wacker together control around 70% of silicon wafer market); master GaAS substrate manufacturing technology of Japanese companies including Hitachi Cable, Sumitomo Electric, Mitsubishi Chemical, Shin-Etsu, etc.; master organic metal technology is Sumitomo Electric; master phosphor technology companies are fundamentally about the special chemistry (Nenoto), into (Optonix), etc.; master MOVCD devices (commonly known as the extension of the furnace) manufacturing technology of Japanese companies, including Nichia, Toyoda Gosei, Dayang Sanso (Sanso) and so on.
Second, the second phase of building and nurturing needs of the market (2003-2010)
“The 21st century light plan” is the beginning of this century, the implementation of Japan’s technology leader in the field of LED-based development strategy of the important measures. The program hopes to continuous technological breakthrough can be achieved in 2006 with 50 percent of white LED lighting alternative to traditional lighting, as well as the country’s electricity consumption by approximately 10% of the target. But in fact the LED lighting lighting in Japan in 2008 accounted for only 0.8% of market share, which is LED price drop not achieve the desired level, and marketing applications has a lot of lag. To this end, the Japanese government to adjust the “21st Century Light Plan” to implement the second phase of the center of gravity, from the first phase of the push-based technology research and development to build the second phase shift and training needs of the market. More technical aspects of research and industry by industry-led alliance government’s direct financial investment decreased, the government hopes to develop the market and strengthen the popularization and application to open the deadlock. Thus, in the second phase implementation process, the Japanese government has adopted a standard set up to promote LED, LED products promote the use of tax incentives and other measures to expand the LED lighting market.
(A) promote the establishment of standards for LED
Currently, the overall global LED industry standards are not established, although the International Standards Association has developed a CIE-127 standard, but only part of the measurement standard. The reason is mainly a wide range LED applications, requirements of individual areas such as product characteristics vary greatly, but the lack of leader-led industry standard is one very important factor. To this end, the Japanese government and manufacturers to establish a standard for the world to seize the advantage is very positive. A few years ago, organized by the Japanese government, Japanese semiconductor lighting industry for the joint Japan Electric Lamp Manufacturers’ Association of LED products style and standardized measurements, and more recently the integration of Japan 72 LED LED lighting related companies set up to promote the Association, the the standard integration and development, membership hope buyers and sellers by reducing transaction costs and industry standards, thereby enhancing the competitive advantage of Japanese companies worldwide. Japan introduced the main LED important criteria include: the development and improvement of “white LED lighting metering method General.” Illuminating Engineering Society of Japan (JIES), Japan’s Commission on Illumination (JCIE), Japanese lighting industry will (JIL) and the Japan Electrical Manufacturers’ Association ball (JEL) in 2004 to develop common standards, “with white LED light metering method General”, as the only white LED lighting for the development of measurement standards in the first edition had the lead in formulating a number of projects had not been standardized, such as standard LED manufacturing, small modules of light intensity measurement and life assessment methods. Subsequently, the four groups in Japan in March 2006 announced a revision of this standard, increasing standard, and revise the original content, colorimetric measurements and flux measurement methods make a more detailed specification. Overall, a very detailed description of the standard, can be found at this stage of the LED standard international literature, the content can be said to be the most complete specifications. In the current industry is still a lack of appropriate generic LED measurement standard case, the standard will be an important reference.
Re-enactment of “Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law” to regulate, including LED products, including product attributes. May 2010, the Japanese re-enacted the “Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law,” clearly defined electron emitters (LED, OLED lighting) the power, voltage, fixed frequency. Provisions of the relevant official is expected to be released before the first quarter of 2011, the fastest will be implemented in July 2011. But for LED lighting, electric current specification includes only the spherical object lighting, lamp lighting in the specification that the object beyond. Although the “Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law” does not contain a lamp type LED lighting, but still want companies to the Japanese government according to their own performance and security constraints, the formation of non-expressly provides that “the industry specifications.”
(B) promote the use of tax incentives LED products
Tax breaks to encourage procurement of LED products. December 2005, Japan introduced to improve and enhance the promotion of energy tax, between 2006-2007, clearly defined business or organization to use led lighting to replace incandescent lighting, access to over 130 per cent depreciation of investments, or 7% of investment tax rate reduction, to narrow the traditional lighting of the LED and the gap between procurement costs, improve use of LED lighting initiative to expand the demand for LED lighting in Japan.
LED products into the “Eco-Point” energy-saving appliances subsidy program. In response to the international financial crisis, to stimulate domestic consumption demand, in May 2009, the Japanese government began to implement energy-saving appliances subsidy program “Eco-Point” system, the implementation period for the end of 2010. The so-called Eco-Point system, affordable way to mainly country will be equivalent to 5% of the cost price as “EcoPoint” restore to consumers, then consumers can use points accumulated exchange of other products. LED lighting products become the flat-screen TVs, refrigerators and air conditioning after the approval of the second batch of product subsidies object. Currently, Eco-Point systems since inception, led the sales showed significant growth-related products, including LED lights in the Japanese share rose from less than 1% in 2009 to rapidly increase in February 2010 to 10%, effective from the last play boost Japanese consumer, the role of supporting economic recovery.