Tag Archives: US

How Has Been The Growth Of Chemical Industry In India

The chemical industry in India is counted among those industries that began working immediately after the countrys independence in 1947. So, it is one of the oldest contributors towards the Indian economy. At present the average annual growth rate of the industry is 12.5 percent.

The Indian chemical industry is divided into a number of segments and each segment has significantly contributed towards the overall growth of the industry. A number of favorable factors have supported the industry well to show desired progress rate. You can learn about these factors and have an overview of the industry as well as exporters and
chemicals importer from the following discussion.

It was till 1991 that India was a closed economy. However, the adoption of liberal policy in 1991 benefited most of the industries, including the chemical industry in India. Since then, the industry has gained recognition in the global economy. Today, it ranks at the 12th position in the world in terms of the production size. Also, the industry contributes 13 percent towards the total export from India at present.

It has been estimated that in few years to come, the industry is going to attain the worth of 100 billion US dollars. To achieve this target, there is need for the improvement in the following areas:
* More number of entrepreneurs is required to steer the industry on the path of expected growth.

* Growth of the overseas sales network to help industrial chemical manufacturers in India to find international buyers.

* Increase in direct employment within the industry.

* Stress on chemical manufacturing knowledge and specialty.

* Improvement in the standards of health and safety.

* Increased use of information technology in the industry.

* And of course, the increase in specialty chemical plants.

The chemical industry in India is divided into various segments. Some of the main segments and their progress statistics are as below:

* Inorganic chemicals constitute one of the major segments of the countrys total chemical production. A growth rate of 9 percent is recorded for the segment that includes alkalis, fertilizers and detergents as main chemicals.

* Drugs and pharmaceuticals are among the most exported chemicals from India. This segment of the Indian chemical industry ranks at 4th position in the world. The growth rate of 8 to 9 percent is recorded by the segment.

* Agro-chemical products include pesticides and fertilizers as the main chemicals in this category. The 10 percent domestic market growth rate is recorded by this segment.

* Dyes and paints segment has a growth rate of about 12 percent. The segment also includes polymers and other related chemicals.

* Petrochemicals in the Indian chemical manufacturing industry have the fastest growth rate of 15 percent.

Considering the growth trends in different sections of the chemical industry in India, one can easily place the industry among major contributors towards the overall growth of the countrys economy. To improve the sales network for the Indian chemicals, the manufacturers and suppliers need to rely upon the online b2b networks. The b2b directories are the places where small and medium sized chemical manufacturing enterprises can gain more benefits.

What Are The Main Industries In Kenya

Kenya is the most industrialised country in East and Central Africa. Other countries in this region have for a long time been looking up to Kenya because of her strong political as well as economic strength.

Agriculture has over the years been the backbone of Kenyas economy. This is the most vibrant of all industries in the country and this country has therefore been the source of many agricultural products for export. This industry is well distributed across the country with different regions favouring the growth of various agricultural products depending mostly on climatic conditions. The Rift Valley is in particular identified with the growth of cereals like maize, wheat and sorghum as well as beef farming and milk production. Other parts of this region are also famous for horticultural products like flowers and fruits which make Kenya a major exporter of these products across the world. The Central region is on the other hand identified with the production of coffee and tea as well as a variety of nuts and fruits. All of the above products are majorly for export as well as for local consumption. Other parts of the country that are largely involved in major agricultural products include the Western part of Kenya where fishing is the main agricultural activity.

Besides agriculture, tourism is the other main industry in Kenya. Over the years, Kenya has been widely known for her diverse wildlife and cultural activities. This stature was further boosted in the recent past when Kenya was put on the international spotlight for her famous Maasai Mara Game Reserve. This was as a result of the now world renown phenomenon: the wildebeest migration that is witnessed around the months of August and September every year.

This aspect of the Mara has provided a great deal of publicity of not only this reserve but also other reserves, National Parks and the rich cultural experience that keeps visitors flowing to Kenya. One of the most famous of these cultures is that of the Kenya Maasai that has been well embraced by visitors across the world. The intrigue of their high jumping morans and the way they interact with the wildlife is a major attraction.

Besides the Mara, the Kenyan Coast is another major tourist attraction. It has been identified with international celebrities who not only visit regularly but have also gone ahead to buy prestigious homes here where they reside during their visits. Other visitors have an ample variety of world-class hotels to choose from on their visits to the Coast. Most of them are fully booked during the tourism boom periods mostly during winter seasons in the US and Britain.

Having realised the importance of tourism to the economy, the Kenyan Government has been working extremely hard to further promote tourism all over the world.

Another major industry in Kenya is the manufacturing industry. The country is not only involved in the export of raw products but it also has well established processing and manufacturing plants for different products. A number of these industries are for agricultural products mainly meat processing, coffee and tea processing and milk processing among others. A couple of other manufacturing firms have received international acclamation and they include alcohol production and a number of companies that manufacture food products. All of these products are not only for local consumption, but also for export in the East and Central Africa region and beyond.

Leather Industry Of India

The leather industry in India holds a very prominent place in the Indian economy. The leather and leather products industry is one of the oldest manufacturing industries in India. The Indian leather industry provides employment to about 2.5 million people in the country and has an annual turnover of approximately US$ 5,000,000.

The industry has a massive potential for providing more employment, growth, and exports. Recently, the exports of leather and leather products have gained massive momentum. The exports of Indian leather goods have registered phenomenal growth. This is mainly because great emphasis has been placed on the planned development of the leather industry and at the optimal utilization of available raw materials.

Over the years the leather industry in India has undergone drastic change from being a mere exporter of raw materials in the early 60’s and 70’s to now becoming an exporter of finished, value-added leather products. The main reason behind the transformation is the several policy initiatives taken by the government of India. The proactive government initiatives have yielded quick and improved results. Thanks to the government efforts today, the Indian leather industry has attained a prominent place in the Indian export and has made the industry one of the top 7 industries that earns foreign exchange for the country.

Since India adopted the globalization and liberalized economic policies in 1991, the leather industry has flourished consistently in several ways and has contributed heavily to the Indian exchequer. Though the industry has developed, it still has great potential for more growth and investments. Investing in Indian leather industry is particularly advantageous because the industry is poised to grow further and achieve a major share in the global trading market.

The government of India in its Foreign Trade Policy for 20002009 has identified the leather sector as a focus sector in view of its immense potential for export growth and generation of employment generation prospects.

Investment opportunities in the leather industry lie in different segments related to the industry, which include tanning and finishing of leather products, manufacturing of leather garments, manufacturing of leather footwear and footwear parts, and manufacturing of leather goods, such as harness and saddlery amongst a host of other opportunities.

Amongst all the industries mentioned above the footwear industry in particular holds greater potential for investments in India. India produces approximately 700 million pairs of leather footwear every year and accounts for an 18% share of the total Indian leather export.

After footwear manufacturing of leather goods promise great investment opportunity. Manufacturing of leather products, such as wallets, travel wares, belts, and handbags offer great returns on investment.

India is one of the best destinations in the world for investing in the leather industry because India is endowed with abundant raw materials required for the industry to grow. India has a huge population of cattle. India accounts for 21% of the worlds cattle and buffalo and 11% of the worlds goat and sheep population. Apart from the easy availability of raw materials, investors are able to enjoy an easy and abundant supply of skilled manpower, world-class technology, competent and favorable environmental standards, and the devoted support of allied industries.

Several leading international leather goods manufacturing brand names, such as Hugo Boss, Tommy Hilfiger, Versace, Guess, and DKNY, have invested in India and are engaged in sourcing leather goods from India.

Impact Of Health Care Legislation Hr 3962 On The Outsourcing Industry

President Barack Obama had a hard won victory on Saturday night (the 7-8th day of November 2009) when the landmark health care reform legislation (HR 3962) was passed with 220-215 votes. Now if everything goes the Obama way, then by the end of the year 09 Affordable Health Care for America Act would apply as a law impacting almost fifty million US lives. But what does this Act actually imply? How does it stand to impact an average US life? How does the Act affect the outsourcing industry at large? Through my article below I endeavor to answer these and many more questions.
Ab-initio we will refresh the fundamentals of federalism, stating the Roles, Duties, Nature, Scope and Restrictions on the government in a written federal constitution. Next we proceed to see whether the above attempt by the federal government to accede healthcare legislation is ultra-vires the powers granted by the US Constitution.

What is Federalism?

According to the traditional classification followed by the political scientists, constitutions are either unitary or federal. In a unitary constitution, the powers of the government are centralized in one government viz., the Central Government. In the federal constitution, on the contrary, there is a division of power between the federal and the state governments in a way that they are both inter-dependent and independent at the same time.
As we all know that Constitutions are organic documents which operate as fundamental law. The governments and their organs owe their origin to the constitution, derive their authority from the constitution and discharge their responsibilities within the framework of the constitution. The judiciary has the power to declare a law unconstitutional if the law is found to have contravened any provision of the constitution. The American Constitution is the oldest and a well praised example of federalism.

What are the powers granted by the US Constitution to the State Government?

Powers reserved for State Governments are:
Establishing local governments
Issuing licenses (driver, hunting, marriage, etc.)
Regulating intrastate commerce
Conducting elections
Ratifying amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Providing for public health and safety
Exercising powers which are neither delegated to the Federal Government nor were prohibited from the States by the Federal Constitution (residuary powers)
Framing other domestic law (for example, setting legal drinking and smoking ages etc.)

What are the powers granted by the US Constitution to the Federal Government?

Under the Constitution, powers reserved for the Federal Government are:
Printing of money
Declaration of war
Establishing the armed forces
Entering into treaties with foreign governments
Regulating commerce domestically and internationally
Establishing post offices and issuing postage
Making laws necessary to enforce the Constitution

What are the powers shared by Federal and State Government?

Under the Constitution, the shared, or “concurrent” powers are:
Setting up courts
Creating and collecting taxes
Building highways
Borrowing money
Making and enforcing laws
Chartering banks and corporations
Spending money for the betterment of the general welfare
Acquiring private property with appropriate compensation

What is the HR 3962 Act ?

The HR 3962 Act conceptualizes a new, voluntary, public, long-term care insurance program to help purchase services and support for people who have functional limitations. The Act endeavors to form a new national program to provide affordable coverage for those who cant get health insurance today because of pre-existing conditions. Under this, the insurance companies must spend 85 cents out of every premium dollar on medical services, thereby fostering the expansion of Medicaid and improving the Medicare. Under this, the young adults, till the age 26, are covered within their parents policies.

The Obama administration intends to attain this by creating mandates. As a self-sustaining public insurance option (that is financed not by tax dollars but by insurance premiums), this provides an alternative to and competes with private health insurance companies, on a level playing field. Additionally, the Act intends to eliminate the antitrust exemption for health insurers and medical malpractice insurers thereby fostering competition thus targeting the existing monopolies in the health insurance market. It aims to establish a new mandatory essential benefits package that shall become the minimum quality standard for employer plans, with the passage of time. The package places a cap for annual out-of-pocket spending, at a maximum of $5,000 per individual and $10,000 per family to prevent bankruptcies from medical expenses.

This Act requires the employers to either provide insurance to their employees or contribute to the cost of their coverage through the public plan/exchange, though the small businesses are exempted from this requirement.

Arguments regarding Constitutionality of HR 3962

The legal fraternity is divided between two schools of thought about the constitutionality of the Act. First school believes that the Act is unconstitutional and places reliance on Articles I 8 and V of the US constitution and on Tenth Amendment. They claim that their argument is supported by the celebrated case of MARBURY v. MADISON, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) and some federalist opinions. The second school of thought places reliance on Article I 8 and the celebrated case of McCulloh v. Maryland, 4 Wheaton 316 (1819); Steward Machine Co. v. Davis, 301 U.S. 548 (1937); United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936) and some federalist opinions. An in-toto analysis of these school of thoughts would conclude that the true interpretation of the word general welfare in Article I 8 of the U.S. Constitution can only determine the constitutionality of an Act like HR 3962. Till date the court opinions have been more inclined towards Hamilton (Federalist 33, 83 etc.) and Story rather than Madison (Federalist 41, 45 etc.).
Simply put, when the government mandates welfare as a quid-pro-quo for premiums collected, such welfare translates to nothing but a tax liability for the country men. Such an attempt by the government to regulate insurance sector by masquerading as an industry player is inspired from socialism. I personally feel that socialism is a Marxian concept and may not go well in an economy with capitalist foundations. The good thing is that people all over the world should buy insurance; this however turns bad when the government forces people to do so.

What are the implications of HR 3962 on the Outsourcing industry?

The object clause to the Act states that it is meant to provide affordable, quality health care for all Americans and reduce the growth in health care spending.

In reality, the act is a victim of haste. Ideally if the intention of the Obama administration and the object clause of the Act were actually in-sync then the administration should have awaited a confirmed indication of the end-of-recession. The administration should have first looked at strengthening the fundamentals of the economy, by:
better regulating the existing insurance sector,
improving the US agrarian culture and making the country self sufficient regards its food requirements,
checking the cost-of-living index and
creating more jobs in the private sector.
But if the intention is to make more and more Americans dependant on Federal Government for basic requirements, then the attempt is bang on.

Impact on the outsourcing industry:

Prima-facie it may seem complex but there are clear indications for the outsourcing industry to benefit once the HR 3962 is implemented. The benefit roots from the fact that the employees will become expensive for the employers post this Acts applicability. Now given the very competitive market scenarios, thin profit margin and the inability of the employer to transfer this increased cost to the end consumer, the employer is forced to search for the less costly alternatives. It is needless to say here that the Act magnifies the already existing labor arbitrage opportunities internationally. To appreciate the existing labor arbitrage opportunities you can refer to my older blog post.